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Nippard, E. & Murphy, E. (2007). Social presence in the web-based synchronous secondary classroom. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology,Vol.33(1). Retrieved on March 20, 2009 from http://www.cjlt.ca/index.php/cjlt/article/view/24/22

This paper report the results of a study investigating the manifestation of social presences in web-based synchronous secondary classrooms. The study was conducted in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador; it observed the online recording of twelve synchronous classes to identify and measure social presence in the online environment. The study noted the difference in method and tools teachers and students use to for communication and social interaction.

Nippard, E. (2006, June). Social presence in a web-based synchronous secondary classroom. Invited presentation by the Canadian Institute of Distance Education Research, http://klaatu-dev.pc.athabascau.ca/elluminate/cidersession-060602.jnlp

A recorded presentation of a study investigating the manifestation of social presences in web based synchronous secondary classrooms. The study was conducted in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador; it observed the online recording of twelve synchronous classes to identify and measure social presence in the online environment. The study noted the difference in method and tools teachers and students use to for communication and social interaction.

Nippard, E. C. (2005). Social presence in the web-based synchronous secondary classroom. Unpublished Master's Thesis. Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL.

A Master's thesis focused social presence in the context of virtual learning classrooms that discussed how social presence manifests itself and how online teachers can promote social presence to improve learning. The study involved both teachers and students, and the data was collected through observations and semi-structured interviews. The findings disclosed that affective, cohesive, interactive and audio sensory factors are all related to social presence. The strategies teachers can use to promote social presence were also discussed at the end.

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