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MacLeod, K. J. (2001). Moved by the tides of technology. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta.

A doctoral dissertation reporting an interview study conducted with students, teachers, parents, and administrators that found three themes: identity, time/space, and the ongoing tension between "what is" compared to "what could be". The study also reported that teaching strategies should be modified to be more appropriate for online learning.

Masse-Danes, L. & Gumley, G. (2008, April). LearnNowBC tutoring services. Presentation at the Virtual School Society annual conference, Vancouver, BC.

A presentation focused on tutoring services delivered through LearnNowBC aimed at promoting and helping educators to utilize the resource. The demonstrations provided covered Online Tutoring, Live Workshops, Study BUZZ, and Charged up for Math and Science.

McAuley, A. (1998). Virtual teaching on the tundra. TECHNOS. 7(3), 11-14.

A paper reporting the educators' perspective within the online education experience. As a distance-learning coordinator, the author discussed Computer Supported Intentional Learning Environment (CSILE) and describes a CSILE classroom as a good space for learning and sharing, as well as professional development.

McConkey, J. (2004). New frontiers for British Columbia K-12 distance/distributed learning organizations: needs assessment for South Island Distance Education School. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Royal Roads University, Victoria, BC. Retrieved on April 19, 2009 from

A thesis discussing a need assessment that was conducted for South Island Distance Education School (SIDES) to try to understand how Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) technology influence organization, teaching and learning methods. The study found that ADL endorses cooperation and collaboration not only for students but also for educators.

McGreal, R. (1997). Information technology and telecommunications: A course on the World Wide Web. Journal of Distance Education, 12(1/2). Retrieved July 7, 2005 from

A study designed and conducted to provide adult learners with the opportunity to complete full course online through World-Wide Web. Four provinces participated in the study. They are Alberta, British, Columbia, New Brunswick and Newfoundland and Labrador. This study can be used as a practical example of interprovincial collaboration and resource sharing. Issues and problems faced in forming of the online course were also discussed. The standards developed in the project reported in this study formed the basis for the model implemented by the provincial virtual school in Newfoundland and Labrador.

McLoughlin, B. (2003, March). Wahsa Distance Education Centre: A high school alternative for First Nations students across northwestern Ontario. Presentation at the annual conference of the Manitoba Association for Distributed Learning and Training, Winnipeg, Manitoba.

A presentation discussing the practices of a secondary distance education program offered to first nations students . "Wahsa", an Oji-Cree word, identifies a first nations high school.

McRae, P. & Varnhagen, S. (2008). A study of teachers' workload in distributed learning environments: Flexibility, accessibility & permeable boundaries. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Teachers‘ Association. Retrieved on December 09, 2008 from

An article discussing teacher's perception of their workload in distributed learning environments in Alberta. The research involved 232 people in the field and the data was collected through an anonymous online survey. The findings revealed that there was no clear boundary to divide distributed learning from other educational settings; distributed learning was more often considered "second-class", and the teachers in the field lacked opportunities for professional development.

McWatters, G., & Thompson, L. (1997) The EDEN Project: Electronic Distributive Education Network distance education solutions for the mainstream. Journal of Distance Education, 12(1), 277-284. Retrieved on January 24, 2009 from

An article introducing the Electronic Distributive Education Network (EDEN) project created by the Orillia Learning Center in Ontario in 1995. The purpose of EDEN project was to deliver highest quality courses to adult high school students. The highlights of the project included: 1) feature-rich delivery system; 2) dynamic and interactive instructional strategies; 3) course for career connections; and 4) academic and technical supports.

Meggison, T., & Thompson, G. (2006, May). Successful distance education - Lifeline for small schools. Presentation at the annual conference of the Manitoba Association for Distributed Learning and Training, Winnipeg, Manitoba. Retrieved on January 23, 2009 from

A presentation discussing the authors' distributed learning experiences, comparing two delivery methods, instructional interactive television, and WebCT - summarizing its pros and cons.

Milne, G., Lee, D., & Butterfield, R. (2006, October). Virtual learning: How can it help me? A presentation to the Rural Renewal Conference, Vancouver, BC. Retrieved on January 26, 2009 from and

A presentation focused on distributed learning in British Columbia - reviewing the history of the distributed learning in the province, examining the quality of the network connectivity, analyzing the provincial policy, reporting student achievements, and demonstrating learning resources. The purpose of the presentation was to discuss how those resources could be integrated together to help students and teachers in BCe.

Ministry of Ontario. (2004). Results of the e-learning stakeholder survey. Toronto, ON: Author. Retrieved on September 21, 2008 from

A report of results of the e-learning stakeholder survey of administers, information technology coordinators, principals, teachers, students and parents in Ontario province from Fall 2004. The findings covered quality of education, resource development, priorities for e-learning, student supports, funding, administration, teacher development and technical challenges.

Moor, M. J. (1999.) The virtual classroom: An innovative approach to learning mathematics. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC. Retrieved on April 19, 2009 from

Mosczelt, J., & Dizs, M. (2005, February). Online learning for the middle school student. Presentation at the Leading Learning Conference, Toronto, Ontario.

A presentation that explores online learning in a district-based middle school and examines how online learning can be introduced to middle school students. The study reported that the online learning opportunity developed students' computer skills and prepared them for their further study at the secondary schools.

Muirhead, B. (2000, June). K-12 online education in Alberta: Keeping the learner in focus. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Canadian Association for Distance Education, Montreal, QC. Retrieved on June 21, 2005 from

A research project focused on teachers' perceptions of online education in Alberta area. Fourteen teachers were selected for this study and interviewed. Major themes and challenges emerged that included teachers' attitude towards technology, teachers' roles and responsibilities, stresses, needs on professional development and organizational changes etc.

Muirhead, W. D. (2000a). Teachers' perspectives of online education in Alberta. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. Retrieved on May 12 2008 from

A dissertation discussing the current situation of online learning in Alberta, technology issues, teachers' roles and stresses and marketing issues by interacting thirteen online teachers. Recommendations for practice are also listed.

Muirhead, W. D. (2000b). Online education in schools. The International Journal of Educational Management, 14(7): 315-324.

An article discussing the teachers' perception on online learning in Alberta. Thirteen teachers from four online schools involved into the semi-structured interviews and discussed the issues and concerns online teachers were facing based on their online teaching experiences. The topics discussed covered online course development, student assessment, interactions among teachers, parents and students, and technological issues etc.. The research results revealed that even though the online teachers felt the challenges from online teaching, overall, they perceived many benefits from the online learning process.

Muirhead, B. (1999). The benefits of an online education consortium for Alberta. International Electronic Journal For Leadership in Learning, 3(4). Retrieved June 21, 2005 from

A paper presenting the common interests and benefits of a provincial online education consortium.

Mulcahy, D., & Barbour, M. K. (2009, April). Beyond volunteerism and good will: Examining the commitment of school-based teachers to distance education. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA.

Mulcahy, D., & Barbour, M. K. (2009, April). Virtual school student performance in a rural and remote jurisdiction. Paper discussion presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA.

Mulcahy, D. M., Dibbon, D., & Norberg, C. (2008). An investigation into the nature of education in a rural and remote region of Newfoundland and Labrador: The Straits. St. John’s, NL: The Harris Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland.

An article aiming at investigating the nature of rural online learning in Labrador straits and exploring rural models of learning. The research located schools providing services among the communities in Labrador straits and involved students, teachers, parents and educators into the study. Data was collected by interviews, focus groups and surveys. The issues and concerns identified included: curriculum was losing quality; Centre for Distance Learning and Innovation was lack of supports and assistance; student responsibility shifted from the school to the home; students were restricted to the basic program and communications among students, parents and schools did not go well.

Mulcahy, D. M. (2002). Re-conceptualizing distance education: Implications for the rural schools of Newfoundland and Labrador. The Morning Watch, 30(1-2). Retrieved July 31, 2005 from

An article reviewing the recommendations proposed by the Ministerial Panel on the Delivery of Education in the Classroom and Evaluating how the proposed changes will affect the provision of quality education and schooling in rural places. The highlighted topics include special needs of rural schools, distance education expansion, asynchronous communications, student supports and teacher development.

Mulcahy, D., & Howley, C. B. (2001). Web-based high school courses in rural schools: Practice, possibilities and dilemmas (Vol. 2002), ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools. Retrieved December 18, 2002 from

A transcript of an online discussion about distance education in rural schools and current modes of instructional delivery they were experiencing.

Mulcahy, D. M. (1999). Future directions for rural schools in Newfoundland and Labrador: Is the "virtual school" the way to go? The Morning Watch, 27(1-2). Retrieved on July 8, 2005 from

An article discussing if the virtual school is the future direction for rural schools in Newfoundland and Labrador. The article analyzed the situations and needs of rural schools, compared the urban schools with rural schools and evaluated the recommendations from the Ministerial Panel to conclude that rural educators and parents should play the role to make the final decision.

Murphy, E. (2009, October). Sage without a stage: Learner-centered e-teaching. Invited presentation at the EDGE 2009 conference, St. John's, NL.

Murphy, E. & Rodríguez-Manzanares, M.(2009). Learner-Centredness in High-School Distance Learning: Teachers’ Perspectives and Research-Validated Principles. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 25(5), 597-610.

Murphy, E., & Rodriguez, M. (2009). Teachers’ perspectives on motivation in high-school distance education. Journal of Distance Education, 23(3), 1-24. Retrieved on November 26, 2009 from

Murphy, E., & Rodriguez, M. (2009). Sage without a stage: Expanding the object of teaching in a web-based, high-school classroom. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10(3). Retrieved on June 27, 2009 from

Murphy, E., & Rodriguez, M. (2009, January). E-learning and learner-centeredness: High-school teachers' beliefs. Paper presentation at the 7th Hawaii International Conference on Education, Honolulu, HI.

Murphy, E., & Rodriguez, M. (2009, January). An activity theory perspective on high-school distance education in a Canadian setting. Paper presentation at the 7th Hawaii International Conference on Education, Honolulu, HI.

A presentation reporting the results of an interview study with 13 virtual high school teachers on their practice through the lens of Activity Theory. The study provided insight into Activity Theory as a lens to help better understand how new tools can act as a catalyst for change in teachers’ practices.

Murphy, E. & Rodríguez-Manzanares, M. (2009). Research on the e-teacher in the K-12 distance education classroom. In P. Rogers, G. B, J. Boettcher, C. Howard, L. Justice, & K. Schenk (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Distance and Online Learning (2nd ed.), (pp. 1-4). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Murphy, E. (2008). Learner-centred e-teaching. St. John's, NL: Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved on November 29, 2008 from

An article reporting two studies on learner-centered e-teaching conducted by Community-University Research Alliance during 2006 and 2007. The first study was aiming at examine e-learning based on constructive strategies; the other was focusing on teachers' beliefs about learner-centered teaching and developing teaching materials based on the beliefs.

Murphy, E. & Rodríguez-Manzanares, M. (2008). Contradictions between the virtual and physical high-school classroom: A third generation activity theory perspective. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(6), 1061-1072.

A paper that applied a third-generation activity theory as a tool to investigated the contradictions between the activity systems of the physical and virtual classrooms. Data collection was surveys and semi-interviews of teachers who were technicians in both environments. The focus of the study aimed to identify and characterize the contradictions and evaluate how the differences may lead to further the development and practice of e-teaching

Murphy E., & Rodriguez Manzanares, M. (2008). High school teachers’ beliefs about learner-centred e-learning. E-Learning, 5(4), 384‑395.

A paper describing teachers' beliefs about online learning. Data from 16 teachers revealed that teachers believe technology emotionally engages young learners, functionally extends learning opportunities and that teachers are the mediators of that process.

Murphy, E. & Rodríguez-Manzanares, M.( 2008). Using activity theory and its principle of contradictions to guide research in educational technology. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 24(4),442-447. Retrieved on March 28, 2009 from

Murphy, E. (2008, April). Designing online synchronous communication to strengthen students' second-language communication skills. Paper presentation at the annual conference of the Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, Banff, AB. Retrieved on March 27, 2009 from

This presentation examined teacher practices and activities that would promoted strengthening students' second language communication skills, along with related challenges and solutions to implementing those practices and activities. Preliminary findings were grouped into three categories of technical, logistical and pedagogical.

Murphy, E. & Rodríguez-Manzanares, M. (2008). Revisiting transactional distance theory in a context of web-based high-school distance education. Journal of Distance Education, 22(2), 1-14. Retrieved on May 9, 2008 from

A paper that reported on a study that considered transactional distance theory in the context of web-based distance education of a high school environment. Data collection was semi-structured interviews of e-teachers and personnel from the Centre for Distance Learning and Innovation, located in Newfoundland and Labrador. The findings were categorized with respect to transactional distance theory's three variables: dialogue, structure and learner autonomy.

Murphy, E. & Rodríguez-Manzanares, M. (2008). Instant messaging in a context of virtual schooling: Balancing the affordances and challenges. Educational Media International, 45(1), 47-58.

An article that reported on a study of instant messaging used as an instruction tool for high school courses offered in the virtual schooling environment. The article noted challenges of using instant messaging in the educational context, and implied the need for professional development of pedagogical techniques and strategies.

Murphy, E. & Butt, K. (2007, October). Designing online synchronous communication to strengthen French as a second language speaking skills. Paper presented at the annual Atlantic Educators' Conference, Charlottetown, PE.

This presentation identified teacher practices and activities that promoted negotiation of meaning in online synchronous communication between four Intensive Core French classrooms in Newfoundland and Labrador. The presentation also identified related challenges and solutions.

Murphy, E. & Rodríguez-Manzanares, M. (2007, September). Deviations from the script: An Activity Theory perspective on the practice of the e-teacher in the virtual high-school classroom. The 10th IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education, Beijing, China.

An article reporting a case study of a virtual class in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador designed based on cultural-historical activity theory. The study found out four themes of shift of e-teachers' role and explained the positive changes.

Murphy, E. & Rodríguez-Manzanares, M. (2007, June). Using third generation activity theory and contradictions to analyse qualitative data. Invited presentation by the Canadian Institute of Distance Education Research. Retrieved on October 27, 2008 from

A presentation via Elluminate presenting that activity theory and contradictions provides a powerful explanatory lens for distance learning and finding out that activity theory and contradictions are useful tools for qualitative research and data analysis which is hard and time-consuming for distance education research.

Murphy, E. (2007, May). Contradictions between the virtual and physical high-school classroom: A third generation activity theory perspective. Paper presentation at the annual conference of the Canadian Association for Distance Education, Winnipeg, MN.

A paper presentation focused on contradictions between the virtual and physical classroom through the lens of a third generation activity theory. The main trends identified by the study included that the learning environment was changing from a teacher-centered classroom-centered classroom to a learner-centered community, the role of teachers was changing from instructor to designer, and learning responsibilities were being switched from teachers to students.

Murphy, E. (2006, May). Perspectives on distance in a context of virtual schooling. Paper presentation at the annual conference of the Canadian Association for Distance Education, Montreal, QC.

A presentation reporting the findings from year one of a three-year study examining Moore's transactional distance theory. The study found that the context of virtual school can be linked to professional collaboration, community building and personal connections, and how they were influenced by each other.

Murphy, E., Rodriquez, M. A., & Ciszewska-Carr, J. (2006, April). Perspectives on virtual schooling in a Canadian context. Paper presented at the 6th International Educational Technology Conference.

A paper presentation discussing the findings from a study on virtual schooling in Canada in relation to Moore's transactional distance theory. Similar to Murphy (2006), the study found that the context of virtual school can be determined by professional collaboration, community building and personal connections, and how they were influenced by each other.

Murphy, E. (2005). Issues in the adoption of broadband-enabled learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 36(3), 525–536.

A paper focusing on examining the adoption of broad-band-enabled learning by studying a music project called MusicGrid. This project involved teachers and students around the whole Canadian area. The data was collected during 15-month period by interviewing, observing, sending survey and analyzing documents. Both advantages and disadvantages of using broadband-enabled learning were found. Advantages included providing access, cross-cultural collaborations, and information exchanges among a large area. The disadvantages included cross-cultural interaction difficulties such as language differences and time zone difference and technological issues.

Murphy, E. & Coffin, G. (2003). Synchronous communication in a web-based senior-high school course: Maximizing affordances and minimizing constraints of the tools. American Journal of Distance Education , 17(4),235-246. Retrieved on March 13, 2009 from

A paper that studied the use of synchronous communication tools to support web-based instruction of French as a second language courses to senior high school students living in Newfoundland and Labrador. The paper focused on the affordances and constraints of the technology to support the interactions between teachers, students and instructional content.

Murphy, E. & Cake, G. (2003, June). The use of synchronous communication tools in a web-based senior high school French course. Paper presentation at the annual conference of the Canadian Association for Distance Education, St. John's, NL.

A presentation focusing on synchronous communication tools in support of a high school French as a second language course. The authors discussed the interactions among students, teachers and learning content, and presented pedagogical activities designed to make effective use of the tools.

Murphy, E. (2003). Learning supported by broadband in a Canadian context: Benefits and Challenges. In A. M. Vilas, J.A. Gonzalez & J.M. Gonzalez,(Eds.) Advances in Technology-Based Education: Towards a Knowledge-Based Society. Junta De Extremadura, Consejeria de Educacion, Ciencia y Tecnologia, Vol.1, 273-277.

A paper that discussed the benefits and challenges of broadband- support learning systems in the context of the MusicGrid project, a Canadian initiative to deliver music education to geographically diverse locations.

Murphy, E. (2002). New tools in an old trade: Teachers talk about use of internet in the teaching of French as a second or foreign language. Canadian Modern language Review. Vol. 59 (2), 215-235.

A paper presenting the partial findings of a study of teachers’ beliefs about using the internet for teaching and learning French as a Second and Foreign Language .The findings of the study investigate the effective use of the internet as an instruction tool.

Murphy, E. (2000). Strangers in a Strange Land: Teachers' beliefs about teaching and learning French as a second or foreign language in online learning environments. Doctoral dissertation. Québec: Université Laval.

A doctoral dissertation that profiled the beliefs teachers of French as a second language and foreign language studies, held towards teaching and learning in online learning environments. The study aimed to understand how these beliefs reflect the changes in learning theories, methodology and use of technology in teaching French as a second language and foreign language over the past century.

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